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      2. 當前位置:希尼爾首頁 > 英文法規 >美國憲法The Constitution of the United States of America 

        美國憲法The Constitution of the United States of America 

         

        From:青島希尼爾翻譯公司 http://www.community-place.com  Date: 2014-11-17

         

        We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

        Article I 

        Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 

        Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

        No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.

        Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

        When vacancies happen in the Representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

        The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

        Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

        Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

        No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

        The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

        The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

        The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

        Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

        

        Section 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

        The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

        

        Section 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

        Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

        Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

        Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

        

        Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

        No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

        

        Section 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.

        Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

        Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

        

        Section 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

        To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

        To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;

        To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

        To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

        To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

        To establish post offices and post roads;

        To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

        To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

        To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

        To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

        To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

        To provide and maintain a navy;

        To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

        To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

        To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

        To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;——And

        To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

        

        Section 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

        The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

        No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

        No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

        No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

        No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.

        No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

        No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

        

        Section 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

        No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

        No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

        

        Article II

        

        Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:

        Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

        The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.

        The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

        No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States.

        In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

        The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

        Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:——“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

        

        Section 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

        He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

        The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

        

        Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

        

        Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

        
        Article III

        
        Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

        

        Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;——to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;——to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;——to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;——to controversies between two or more states;——between a state and citizens of another state;——between citizens of different states;——between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

        In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

        The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

        

        Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

        The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.

        
        Article IV
        

        Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

        

        Section 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

        A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

        No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

        

        Section 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.

        The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

        Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

        

        Article V

        

        The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

        

        Article VI

        

        All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

        This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

        The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

        

        Article VII

        

        The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

        Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present the seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth.

        In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

        

        G. Washington-Presidt. and deputy from Virginia

        New Hampshire: John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

        Massachusetts: Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

        Connecticut: Wm: Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman

        New York: Alexander Hamilton

        New Jersey: Wil: Livingston, David Brearly, Wm. Paterson, Jona: Dayton

        Pennsylvania: B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt. Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

        Delaware: Geo: Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco: Broom

        Maryland: James McHenry, Dan of St Thos. Jenifer, Danl Carroll

        Virginia: John Blair——, James Madison Jr.

        North Carolina: Wm. Blount, Richd. Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

        South Carolina: J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

        Georgia: William Few, Abr Baldwin

        美國憲法(中文)

        我們合眾國人民,為建立更完善的聯邦,樹立正義,保障國內安寧,提供共同防務,促進公共福利,并使我們自己和后代得享自由的幸福,特為美利堅合眾國制定本憲法。

        第 一 條

        第一款 本憲法授予的全部立法權,屬于由參議院和眾議院組成的合眾國國會。

        第二款 眾議院由各州人民每兩年選舉產生的眾議員組成。每個州的選舉人須具備該州州議會人數最多一院選舉人所必需的資格。

        凡年齡不滿二十五歲,成為合眾國公民不滿七年,在一州當選時不是該州居民者,不得擔任眾議員。

        [眾議員名額和直接稅稅額,在本聯邦可包括的各州中,按照各自人口比例進行分配。各州人口數,按自由人總數加上所有其他人口的五分之三予以確定。自由人總數包括必須服一定年限勞役的人,但不包括未被征稅的印第安人。]①人口的實際統計在合眾國國會第一次會議后三年內和此后每十年內,依法律規定的方式進行。每三萬人選出的眾議員人數不得超過一名,但每州至少須有一名眾議員;在進行上述人口統計以前,新罕布什爾州有權選出三名,馬薩諸塞州八名,羅得島州和普羅維登斯種植地一名,康涅狄格州五名,紐約州六名,新澤西州四名,賓夕法尼亞州八名,特拉華州一名,馬里蘭州六名,弗吉尼亞州十名,北卡羅來納州五名,南卡羅來納州五名,佐治亞州三名。

        任何一州代表出現缺額時,該州行政當局應發布選舉令,以填補此項缺額。

        眾議院選舉本院議長和其他官員,并獨自擁有彈劾權。

        第三款 合眾國參議院由[每州州議會選舉的]②兩名參議員組成,任期六年;每名參議員有一票表決權。

        參議員在第一次選舉后集會時,立即分為人數盡可能相等的三個組。第一組參議員席位在第二年年終空出,第二組參議員席位在第四年年終空出,第三組參議員席位在第六年年終空出,以便三分之一的參議員得每二年改選一次。[在任何一州州議會休會期間,如因辭職或其他原因而出現缺額時,該州行政長官在州議會下次集會填補此項缺額前,得任命臨時參議員。]⑧

        凡年齡不滿三十歲,成為合眾國公民不滿九年,在一州當選時不是該州居民者,不得擔任參議員。

        合眾國副總統任參議院議長,但除非參議員投票時贊成票和反對票相等,無表決權。

        參議院選舉本院其他官員,并在副總統缺席或行使合眾國總統職權時,選舉一名臨時議長。

        參議院獨自擁有審判一切彈劾案的權力。為此目的而開庭時,全體參議員須宣誓或作代誓宣言。合眾國總統受審時,最高法院首席大法官主持審判。無論何人,非經出席參議員三分之二的同意,不得被定罪。

        彈劾案的判決,不得超出免職和剝奪擔任和享有合眾國屬下有榮譽、有責任或有薪金的任何職務的資格。但被定罪的人,仍可依法起訴、審判、判決和懲罰。

        第四款 舉行參議員和眾議員選舉的時間、地點和方式,在每個州由該州議會規定。但除選舉參議員的地點外,國會得隨時以法律制定或改變這類規定。

        國會每年至少開會一次,除非國會以法律另訂日期外,此會議在(十二月第一個星期一]④舉行。

        第五款 每院是本院議員的選舉、選舉結果報告和資格的裁判者。每院議員過半數,即構成議事的法定人數;但不足法定人數時,得逐日休會,并有權按每院規定的方式和罰則,強迫缺席議員出席會議。

        每院得規定本院議事規則,懲罰本院議員擾亂秩序的行為,并經三之二議員的同意開除議員。

        每院應有本院會議記錄,并不時予以公布,但它認為需要保密的部分除外。每院議員對于任何問題的贊成票和反對票,在出席議員五分之一的請求下,應載入會議記錄。

        在國會開會期間,任何一院,未經另一院同意,不得休會三日以上,也不得到非兩院開會的任何地方休會。

        第六款 參議員和眾議員應得到服務的報酬,此項報酬由法律確定并由合眾國國庫支付。他們除犯叛國罪、重罪和妨害治安罪外,在一切情況下都享有在出席各自議院會議期間和往返于各自議院途中不受逮捕的特權。他們不得因在各自議院發表的演說或辯論而在任何其他地方受到質問。

        參議員或眾議員在當選任期內,不得被任命擔任在此期間設置或增薪的合眾國管轄下的任何文官職務。凡在合眾國屬下任職者,在繼續任職期間不得擔任任何一院議員。

        第七款 所有征稅議案應首先在眾議院提出,但參議院得像對其他議案一樣,提出或同意修正案。

        眾議院和參議院通過的每一議案,在成為法律前須送交合眾國總統??偨y如批準該議案,即應簽署;如不批準,則應將該議案同其反對意見退回最初提出該議案的議院。該院應特此項反對見詳細載入本院會議記錄并進行復議。如經復議后,該院三分之二議員同意通過該議案,該議案連同反對意見應一起送交另一議院,并同樣由該院進行復議,如經該院三分之二議員贊同,該議案即成為法律。但在所有這類情況下,兩院表決都由贊成票和反對票決定;對該議案投贊成票和反對票的議員姓名應分別載入每一議院會議記錄。如任何議案在送交總統后十天內(星期日除外)未經總統退回,該議案如同總統已簽署一樣,即成為法律,除非因國會休會而使該議案不能退回,在此種情況下,該議案不能成為法律。

        凡須由參議院和眾議院一致同意的每項命令、決議或表決(關于休會問題除外),須送交合眾國總統,該項命令、決議或表決在生效前,須由總統批準,如總統不批準,則按照關于議案所規定的規則和限制,由參議院和眾議院三分之二議員重新通過。

        第八款 國會有權:

        規定和征收直接稅、進口稅、捐稅和其他稅,以償付國債、提供合眾國共同防務和公共福利,但一切進口稅、捐稅和其他稅應全國統一;

        以合眾國的信用借款;

        管制同外國的、各州之間的和同印第安部落的商業;

        制定合眾國全國統一的歸化條例和破產法;

        鑄造貨幣,厘定本國貨幣和外國貨幣的價值,并確定度量衡的標準;

        規定有關偽造合眾國證券和通用貨幣的罰則;

        設立郵政局和修建郵政道路;

        保障著作家和發明家對各自著作和發明在限定期限內的專有權利,以促進科學和工藝的進步;

        設立低于最高法院的法院;

        界定和懲罰在公海上所犯的海盜罪和重罪以及違反國際法的犯罪行為;

        宣戰,頒發擄獲敵船許可狀,制定關于陸上和水上捕獲的條例;

        招募陸軍和供給軍需,但此項用途的撥款期限不得超過兩年;

        建立和維持一支海軍;

        制定治理和管理陸海軍的條例;

        規定征召民兵,以執行聯邦法律、鎮壓叛亂和擊退入侵;

        規定民兵的組織、裝備和訓練,規定用來為合眾國服役的那些民兵的管理,但民兵軍官的任命和按國會規定的條例訓練民兵的權力,由各州保留;

        對于由某些州讓與合眾國、經國會接受而成為合眾國政府所在地的地區(不得超過十平方英里),在任何情況下都行使獨有的立法權;對于經州議會同意、由合眾國在該州購買的用于建造要塞、彈藥庫、兵工廠、船塢和其他必要建筑物的一切地方,行使同樣的權力;以及制定為行使上述各項權力和由本憲法授予合眾國政府或其任何部門或官員的一切其他權力所必要和適當的所有法律。

        第九款 現有任何一州認為得準予入境之人的遷移或入境,在一千八百零八年以前,國會不得加以禁止,但對此種人的入境,每人可征不超過十美元的稅。不得中止人身保護狀的特權,除非發生叛亂或入侵時公共安全要求中止這項特權。

        不得通過公民權利剝奪法案或追溯既往的法律。

        [除依本憲法上文規定的人口普查或統計的比例,不得征收人頭稅或其他直接稅。]⑤

        對于從任何一州輸出的貨物,不得征稅。

        任何商業或稅收條例,都不得給予一州港口以優惠于他州港口的待遇;開往或開出一州的船舶,不得被強迫在他州入港、出港或納稅。

        除根據法律規定的撥款外,不得從國庫提取款項。一切公款收支的定期報告書和賬目,應不時予以公布。

        合眾國不得授予貴族爵位。凡在合眾國屬下擔任任何有薪金或有責任的職務的人,未經國會同意,不得從任何國王、君主或外國接受任何禮物、俸祿、官職或任何一種爵位。

        第十款 任何一州都不得:締結任何條約,參加任何同盟或邦聯;頒發捕獲敵船許可狀;鑄造貨幣;發行紙幣;使用金銀幣以外的任何物品作為償還債務的貨幣;通過任何公民權利剝奪法案、追溯既往的法律或損害契約義務的法律;或授予任何貴族爵位。

        任何一州,未經國會同意,不得對進口貨或出口貨征收任何稅款,但為執行本州檢查法所絕對必需者除外。任何一州對進口貨或出口貨所征全部稅款的純收益供合眾國國庫使用;所有這類法律得由國會加以修正和控制。

        任何一州,未經國會同意,不得征收任何船舶噸位稅,不得在和平時期保持軍隊或戰艦,不得與他州或外國締結協定或盟約,除非實際遭到入侵或遇刻不容緩的緊迫危險時不得進行戰爭。

        第 二 條

        第一款 行政權屬于美利堅合眾國總統??偨y任期四年,副總統的任期相同??偨y和副總統按以下方法選舉;每個州依照該州議會所定方式選派選舉人若干人,其數目同該州在國會應有的參議員和眾議員總人數相等。但參議員或眾議員,或在合眾國屬下擔任有責任或有薪金職務的人,不得被選派為選舉人。

        [選舉人在各自州內集會,投票選舉兩人,其中至少有一人不是選舉人本州的居民。選舉人須開列名單,寫明所有被選人和每人所得票數;在該名單上簽名作證,將封印后的名單送合眾國政府所在地,交參議院議長收。參議院議長在參議院和眾議院全體議員面前開拆所有證明書,然后計算票數。得票最多的人,如所得票數超過所選派選舉人總數的半數,即為總統。如獲得此種過半數票的人不止一人,且得票相等,眾議院應立即投票選舉其中一人為總統。如無人獲得過半數票;該院應以同樣方式從名單上得票最多的五人中選舉一人為總統。但選舉總統時,以州為單位計票,每州代表有一票表決權;三分之二的州各有一名或多名眾議員出席,即構成選舉總統的法定人數,選出總統需要所有州的過半數票。在每種情況下,總統選出后,得選舉人票最多的人,即為副總統。但如果有兩人或兩人以上得票相等,參議院應投票選舉其中一人為副總統。]

        國會得確定選出選舉人的時間和選舉人投票日期,該日期在全合眾國應為同一天。

        無論何人,除生為合眾國公民或在本憲法采用時已是合眾國公民者外,不得當選為總統;凡年齡不滿三十五歲、在合眾國境內居住不滿十四年者,也不得當選為總統。

        [如遇總統被免職、死亡、辭職或喪失履行總統權力和責任的能力時,總統職務應移交副總統。國會得以法律規定在總統和副總統兩人被免職、死亡、辭職或喪失任職能力時,宣布應代理總統的官員。該官員應代理總統直到總統恢復任職能力或新總統選出為止。]⑦

        總統在規定的時間,應得到服務報酬,此項報酬在其當選擔任總統任期內不得增加或減少??偨y在任期內不得接受合眾國或任何一州的任何其他俸祿。

        總統在開始執行職務前,應作如下宣誓或代誓宣言:“我莊嚴宣誓(或宣言)我一定忠實執行合眾國總統職務,竭盡全力維護、保護和捍衛合眾國憲法”。

        策二款 總統是合眾國陸軍、海軍和征調為合眾國服役的各州民兵的總司令。他得要求每個行政部門長官就他們各自職責有關的任何事項提出書面意見。他有權對危害合眾國的犯罪行為發布緩刑令和赦免令,但彈劾案除外。

        總統經咨詢參議院和取得其同意有權締結條約,但須經出席參議員三分之二的批準。他提名,并經咨詢參議院和取得其同意,任命大使、公使和領事、最高法院法官和任命手續未由本憲法另行規定而應由法律規定的合眾國所有其他官員。但國會認為適當時,得以法律將這類低級官員的任命權授予總統一人、法院或各部部長。

        總統有權委任人員填補在參議院休會期間可能出現的官員缺額,此項委任在參議院下期會議結束時滿期。

        第三款 總統應不時向國會報告聯邦情況,并向國會提出他認為必要和妥善的措施供國會審議。在非常情況下,他得召集兩院或任何一院開會。如遇兩院對休會時間有意見分歧時,他可使兩院休會到他認為適當的時間。他應接見大使和公使。他應負責使法律切實執行,并委任合眾國的所有官員。

        第四款 總統、副總統和合眾國的所有文職官員,因叛國、賄賂或其他重罪和輕罪而受彈劾并被定罪時,應予免職。

        第 三 條

        第一款 合眾國的司法權,屬于最高法院和國會不時規定和設立的下級法院。最高法院和下級法院的法官如行為端正,得繼續任職,并應在規定的時間得到服務報酬,此項報酬在他們繼續任職期間不得減少。

        第二款 司法權的適用范圍包括:由于本憲法、合眾國法律和根據合眾國權力已締結或將締結的條約而產生的一切普通法的和衡平法的案件;涉及大使、公使和領事的一切案件;關于海事法和海事管轄權的一切案件;合眾國為一方當事人的訴訟;兩個或兩個以上州之間的訴訟;[一州和他州公民之間的訴訟;]⑧不同州公民之間的訴訟;同州公民之間對不同州讓與土地的所有權的訴訟;一州或其公民同外國或外國公民或國民之間的訴訟。

        涉及大使、公使和領事以及一州為一方當事人的一切案件,最高法院具有第一審管轄權。對上述所有其他案件,不論法律方面還是事實方面,最高法院具有上訴審管轄權,但須依照國會所規定的例外和規章。

        除彈劾案外,一切犯罪由陪審團審判;此種審判應在犯罪發生的州內舉行;但如犯罪不發生在任何一州之內,審判應在國會以法律規定的一個或幾個地點舉行。

        第三款 對合眾國的叛國罪只限于同合眾國作戰,或依附其敵人,給予其敵人以幫助和鼓勵。無論何人,除根據兩個證人對同一明顯行為的作證或本人在公開法庭上的供認,不得被定為叛國罪。

        國會有權宣告對叛國罪的懲罰,但因叛國罪而剝奪公民權,不得造成血統玷污,除非在被剝奪者在世期間,也不得沒收其財產。

        第 四 條

        第一款 每個州對于他州的公共法律、案卷和司法程序,應給予充分信任和尊重。國會得以一般法律規定這類法律、案卷和司法程序如何證明和具有的效力。

        第二款 每個州的公民享有各州公民的一切特權和豁免權。

        在任何一州被控告犯有叛國罪、重罪或其他罪行的人,逃脫法網而在他州被尋獲時,應根據他所逃出之州行政當局的要求將他交出,以便解送到對犯罪行為有管轄權的州。

        [根據一州法律須在該州服勞役或勞動的人,如逃往他州,不得因他州的法律或規章而免除此種勞役或勞動,而應根據有權得到此勞役或勞動之當事人的要求將他交出。]⑨

        第三款 新州得由國會接納加入本聯邦;但不得在任何其他州的管轄范圍內組成或建立新州;未經有關州議會和國會的同意,也不得合并兩個或兩個以上的州或幾個州的一部分組成新州。

        國會對于屬于合眾國的領土或其他財產,有權處置和制定一切必要的條例和規章。對本憲法條文不得作有損于合眾國或任何一州的任何權利的解釋。

        第四款 合眾國保證本聯邦各州實行共和政體,保護每州免遭入侵,并應州議會或州行政長官(在州議會不能召開時)的請求平定內亂。

        第 五 條

        國會在兩院三分之二議員認為必要時,應提出本憲法的修正案,或根據各州三分之二州議會的請求,召開制憲會議提出修正案。不論哪種方式提出的修正案,經各州四分之三州議會或四分之三州制憲會議的批準,即實際成為本憲法的一部分而發生效力;采用哪種批準方式,得由國會提出建議。但[在一千八百零八年以前制定的修正案,不得以任何形式影響本憲法第一條第九款第一項和第四項];⑩任何一州,不經其同意,不得被剝奪它在參議院的平等投票權。

        第 六 條

        本憲法采用前訂立的一切債務和承擔的一切義務,對于實行本憲法的合眾國同邦聯時期一樣有效。

        本憲法和依本憲法所制定的合眾國法律,以及根據合眾國的權力已締結或將締結的一切條約,都是全國的最高法律;每個州的法官都應受其約束,即使州的憲法和法律中有與之相抵觸的內容。

        上述參議員和眾議員,各州州議會議員,以及合眾國和各州所有行政和司法官員,應宣誓或作代誓宣言擁護本憲法;但決不得以宗教信仰作為擔任合眾國屬下任何官職或公職的必要資格。

        第 七 條

        經九個州制憲會議的批準,即足以使本憲法在各批準州成立。本憲法于耶酥紀元一千七百八十七年,即美利堅合眾國獨立后第十二年的九月十七日,經出席各州在制憲會議上一致同意后制定。我們謹在此簽名作證。

        主席、弗吉尼亞州代表喬治?華盛頓

        新罕布什爾州

        約翰?蘭登 尼古拉斯?吉爾曼

        馬薩諸塞州

        納撒尼爾?戈勒姆 魯弗斯?金

        康涅狄格州

        威廉?塞繆爾?約翰遜 羅杰?謝爾曼

        紐約州

        亞歷山大?漢密爾頓

        新澤西州

        威廉?利文斯頓 威廉?帕特森

        戴維?布里爾利 喬納森?戴頓

        賓夕法尼亞州

        本杰明?富蘭克林 托馬斯?菲茨西蒙斯

        托馬斯?米夫林 賈雷德?英格索爾

        羅伯特?莫里斯 詹姆斯?威爾遜

        喬治?克萊默 古?莫里斯

        特拉華州

        喬治?里德 理查德?巴西特

        小岡寧?貝德福德

        雅各布?布魯姆 約翰?迪金森

        馬里蘭州

        詹姆斯?麥克亨利 丹尼爾?卡羅爾

        圣托馬斯?詹尼弗的丹尼爾

        弗吉尼亞州

        約翰?布萊爾 小詹姆斯?麥迪遜

        北卡羅來納州

        威廉?布朗特 休?威廉森

        理查德?多布斯?斯佩特

        南卡羅來納州

        約翰?拉特利奇 查爾斯?平克尼

        查爾斯?科茨沃斯?平克尼 皮爾斯?巴特勒

        佐治亞州

        威廉?費尤 亞伯拉罕?鮑德溫

        證人:威廉?杰克遜,秘書

        按照原憲法第五條、由國會提出并經各州批準、增添和修改美利堅合眾國憲法的條款

        第一條修正案

        [前十條修正案于1789年9月25日提出,1791年12月15日批準,被稱為“權利法案”。]

        國會不得制定關于下列事項的法律:確立國教或禁止信教自由;剝奪言論自由或出版自由;或剝奪人民和平集會和向政府請愿伸冤的權利。

        第二條修正案

        管理良好的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,因此人民持有和攜帶武器的權利不得侵犯。

        第三條修正案

        未經房主同意,士兵平時不得駐扎在任何住宅;除依法律規定的方式,戰時也不得駐扎。

        第四條修正案

        人民的人身、住宅、文件和財產不受無理搜查和扣押的權利,不得侵犯。除依據可能成立的理由,以宣誓或代誓宣言保證,并詳細說明搜查地點和扣押的人或物,不得發出搜查和扣押狀。

        第五條修正案

        無論何入,除非根據大陪審團的報告或起訴書,不受死罪或其他重罪的審判,但發生在陸、海軍中或發生在戰時或出現公共危險時服役的民兵中的案件除外。任何人不得因同一犯罪行為而兩次遭受生命或身體的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自證其罪;不經正當法律程序,不得被剝奪生命、自由或財產。不給予公平賠償,私有財產不得充作公用。

        第六條修正案

        在一切刑事訴訟中,被告有權由犯罪行為發生地的州和地區的公正陪審團予以迅速和公開的審判,該地區應事先已由法律確定;得知控告的性質和理由;同原告證人對質;以強制程序取得對其有利的證人;并取得律師幫助為其辯護。

        第七條修正案

        在習慣法的訴訟中,其爭執價額超過二十美元,由陪審團審判的權利應受到保護。由陪審團裁決的事實,合眾國的任何法院除非按照習慣法規則,不得重新審查。

        第八條修正案

        不得要求過多的保釋金,不得處以過重的罰金,不得施加殘酷和非常的懲罰。

        第九條修正案

        本憲法對某些權利的列舉,不得被解釋為否定或輕視由人民保留的其他權利。

        第十條修正案

        憲法未授予合眾國、也未禁止各州行使的權力,由各州各自保留,或由人民保留。

        第十一條修正案

        [1794年3月4日提出,1795年2月7日批準]

        合眾國的司法權,不得被解釋為適用于由他州公民或任何外國公民或國民對合眾國一州提出的或起訴的任何普通法或衡平法的訴訟。

        第十二條修正案

        [1803年12月9日提出,1804年7月27日批準]

        選舉人在各自州內集會,投票選舉總統和副總統,其中至少有一人不是選舉人本州的居民。選舉人須在選票上寫明被選為總統之人的姓名,并在另一選票上寫明校選為副總統之人的姓名。選舉人須將所有被選為總統之人和所有被選為副總統之人分別開列名單,寫明每人所得票數;在該名單上簽名作證,將封印后的名單送合眾國政府所在地,交參議院議長收。參議院議長在參議院和眾議院全體議員面前開拆所有證明書,然后計算票數。獲得總統選票最多的人,如所得票數超過所選派選舉人總數的半數,即為總統。如無人獲得這種過半數票,眾議院應立即從被選為總統之人名單中得票最多的但不超過三人中間,投票選舉總統。但選舉總統時,以州為單位計票,每州代表有一票表決權。三分之二的州各有一名或多名眾議員出席,即構成選舉總統的法定人數,選出總統需要所有州的過半數票。[當選舉總統的權力轉移到眾議院時,如該院在次年三月四日前尚未選出總統,則由副總統代理總統,如同總統死亡或憲法規定的其他喪失任職能力的情況一樣。]⑩得副總統選票最多的人,如所得票數超過所選派選舉人總數的半數,即為副總統。如無人得過半數票,參議院應從名單上得票最多的兩人中選舉副總統。選舉副總統的法定人數由參議員總數的三分之二構成,選出副總統需要參議員總數的過半數票。但依憲法無資格擔任總統的人,也無資格擔任合眾國副總統。

        第十三條修正案

        [1865年1月31日提出,1865年12月6日批準]

        第一款 在合眾國境內受合眾國管轄的任何地方,奴隸制和強制勞役都不得存在,但作為對于依法判罪的人的犯罪的懲罰除

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。

        第十四條修正案

        [1866年6月13日提出,1868年7月9日批準]

        第一款 所有在合眾國出生或歸化合眾國并受其管轄的人,都是合眾國的和他們居住州的公民。任何一州,都不得制定或實施限制合眾國公民的特權或豁免權的任何法律;不經正當法律程序,不得剝奪任何人的生命、自由或財產;在州管轄范圍內,也不得拒絕給予任何人以平等法律保護。

        第二款 眾議員名額,應按各州人口比例進行分配,此人口數包括一州的全部人口數,但不包括未被征稅的印第安人。但在選舉合眾國總統和副總統選舉人、國會眾議員、州行政和司法官員或州議會議員的任何選舉中,一州的[年滿二十一歲]⑩并且是合眾國公民的任何男性居民,除因參加叛亂或其他犯罪外,如其選舉權道到拒絕或受到任何方式的限制,則該州代表權的基礎,應按以上男性公民的人數同該州年滿二十一歲男性公民總人數的比例予以削減。

        第三款 無論何人,凡先前曾以國會議員、或合眾國官員、或任何州議會議員、或任何州行政或司法官員的身份宣誓維護合眾國憲法,以后又對合眾國作亂或反叛,或給予合眾國敵人幫助或鼓勵,都不得擔任國會參議員或眾議員、或總統和副總統選舉人,或擔任合眾國或任何州屬下的任何文職或軍職官員。但國會得以兩院各三分之二的票數取消此種限制。

        第四款 對于法律批準的合眾國公共債務,包括因支付平定作亂或反叛有功人員的年金和獎金而產生的債務,其效力不得有所懷疑。但無論合眾國或任何一州,都不得承擔或償付因援助對合眾國的作亂或反叛而產生的任何債務或義務,或因喪失或解放任何奴隸而提出的任何賠償要求;所有這類債務、義務和要求,都應被認為是非法和無效的。

        第五款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條規定。

        第十五條修正案

        [1869年2月26日提出,1870年2月3日批準]

        第一款 合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因種族、膚色或以前是奴隸而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。

        第十六條修正案

        [1909年7月12日提出,1913年2月3日批準]

        國會有權對任何來源的收入規定和征收所得稅,無須在各州按比例進行分配,也無須考慮任何人口普查或人口統計。

        第十七條修正案

        [1912年5月13日提出,1913年4月8日批準]

        合眾國參議院由每州人民選舉的兩名參議員組成,任期六年;每名參議員有一票表決權。每個州的選舉人應具備該州州議會人數最多一院選舉人所必需的資格。

        任何一州在參議院的代表出現缺額時,該州行政當局應發布選舉令,以填補此項缺額。但任何一州的議會,在人民依該議會指示舉行選舉填補缺額以前,得授權本州行政長官任命臨時參議員。

        本條修正案不得作如此解釋,以致影響在本條修正案作為憲法的一部分生效以前當選的任何參議員的選舉或任期。

        第十八條修正案

        [1917年12月18日提出,1919年1月16日批準]

        [第一款 本條批準一年后,禁止在合眾國及其管轄下的一切領土內釀造、出售和運送作為飲料的致醉酒類;禁止此類酒類輸入或輸出合眾國及其管轄下的一切領土。

        第二款 國會和各州都有權以適當立法實施本條。

        本條除非在國會將其提交各州之日起七年以內,由各州議會按本憲法規定批準為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。]

        第十九條修正案

        [1919年6月4日提出,1920年8月18日批準]

        合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因性別而校合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。

        國會有權以適當立法實施本條。

        第二十條修正案

        [1933年3月2日提出,1933年1月23日批準]

        第一款 總統和副總統的任期應在本條未獲批準前原定任期屆滿之年的一月二十日正午結束,參議員和眾議員的任期在本條未獲批準前原定任期屆滿之年的一月三日正午結束,他們繼任人的任期在同時開始。

        國會每年至少應開會一次,除國會以法律另訂日期外,此會議在一月三日正午開始。

        如當選總統在規定總統任期開始的時間已經死亡,當選副總統應成為

        總統。如在規定總統任期開始的時間以前,總統尚未選出,或當選總統不合乎資格,則當選副總統應代理總統直到 一名總統已合乎資格時為止。在當選總統和當選副總統都不合乎資格時,國會得以法律規定代理總統之人,或宣布選出代理總統的辦法。此人應代理總統直到一名總統或副總統合乎資格時為止。

        國會得以法律對以下情況作出規定:在選舉總統的權利轉移到眾議院時,而可被該院選為總統的人中有人死亡;在選舉副總統的權利轉移到參議院時,而可被該院選為副總統的人中有人死亡。

        第五款 第一款和第二款應在本條批準以后的十月十五日生效。

        第六款 本條除非在其提交各州之日起七年以內,自四分之三州議會批準為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。

        第二十一條修正案

        [1933年2月20日提出,1933年12月5日批準]

        第一款 美利堅合眾國憲法修正案第十八條現予廢除。

        在合眾國任何州、領地或屬地內,凡違反當地法律為在當地發貨或使用而運送或輸入致醉酒類,均予以禁止。

        本條除非在國會將其提交各州之日起七年以內,由各州制憲會議依本憲法規定批準為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。

        第二十二條修正案

        [1947年3月24日提出,1951年2月27日批準]

        無論何人,當選擔任總統職務不得超過兩次;無論何人,在他人當選總統任期內擔任總統職務或代理總統兩年以上,不得當選擔任總統職務一次以上。但本條不適用于在國會提出本條時正在擔任總統職務的任何人;也不妨礙本條在一屆總統任期內生效時正在擔任總統職務或代理總統的任何人,在此屆任期結束前繼續擔任總統職務或代理總統。

        本條除非在國會將其提交各州之日起七年以內,由四分之三州議會批準為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。

        第二十三條修正案

        [1960年6月16日提出,1961年3月29日批準]

        第一款 合眾國政府所在的特區,應依國會規定方式選派:一定數目的總統和副總統選舉人,其人數如同特區是一個州一樣,等于它在國會有權擁有的參議員和眾議員人數的總和,但不得超過人口最少之州的選舉人人數。他們是在各州所選派的舉人以外增添的人,但為了選舉總統和副總統的目的,應被視為一個州選派的選舉人;他們在特區集會,履行第十二條修正案所規定的職責。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。

        第二十四條修正案

        [1962年8月27日提出,1964年1月23日批準]

        第一款 合眾國公民在總統或副總統、總統或副總統選舉人、或國會參議員或眾議員的任何預選或其他選舉中的選舉權,不得因未交納任何人頭稅或其他稅而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。

        第二十五條修正案

        [1965年7月6日提出,1967年2月10日批準]

        第一款 如遇總統被免職、死亡或辭職,副總統應成為總統。

        第二款 凡當副總統職位出缺時,總統應提名一名副總統,經國會兩院都以過半數票批準后就職。

        第三款 凡當總統向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱他不能夠履行其職務的權力和責任,直至他向他們提交一份相反的聲明為止,其權力和責任應由副總統作為代理總統履行。

        第四款 凡當副總統和行政各部長官的多數或國會以法律設立的其他機構成員的多數,向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任時,副總統應立即作為代理總統承擔總統職務的權力和責任。

        此后,當總統向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱喪失能力的情況不存在時,他應恢復總統職務的權力和責任, 除非副總統和行政各部長官的多數或國會以法律設立的其它機構成員的多數在四天之內向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任。在此種情況下,國會應決定這一問題,如在休會期間,應為此目的在四十八小時以內集會。如國會在收到后一書面聲明后的二十一天以內,或如適逢休會期間,則在國會按照要求集會以后的二十一天以內,以兩院的三分之二的票數決定總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任,副總統應繼續作為代理總統履行總統職務的權力和責任;否則總統應恢復總統職務的權力和責任。

        第二十六條修正案

        [1971年3月23日提出,1971年7月1日批準]

        第一款 年滿十八歲和十八歲以上的合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因為年齡而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。

        第二十七條修正案

        [1989年9月25日提出,1992年5月7日批準]

        改變參議員和眾議員服務報酬的法律,在眾議員選舉舉行之前不得生效


        編輯:青島希尼爾翻譯公司翻譯部 2014-11-17

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