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      2. 當前位置:希尼爾首頁 > 英文法規 >美國憲法The Constitution of the United States of America 

        美國憲法The Constitution of the United States of America 


        From:青島希尼爾翻譯公司 http://www.community-place.com  Date: 2014-11-17


        We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

        Article I 

        Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 

        Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

        No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.

        Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

        When vacancies happen in the Representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

        The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

        Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

        Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

        No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

        The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

        The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

        The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

        Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.


        Section 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

        The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


        Section 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

        Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

        Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

        Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.


        Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

        No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.


        Section 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.

        Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

        Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.


        Section 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

        To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

        To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;

        To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

        To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

        To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

        To establish post offices and post roads;

        To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

        To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

        To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

        To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

        To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

        To provide and maintain a navy;

        To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

        To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

        To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

        To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;——And

        To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.


        Section 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

        The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

        No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

        No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

        No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

        No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.

        No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

        No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.


        Section 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

        No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

        No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


        Article II


        Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:

        Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

        The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.

        The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

        No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States.

        In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

        The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

        Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:——“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”


        Section 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

        He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

        The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.


        Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.


        Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

        Article III

        Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.


        Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;——to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;——to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;——to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;——to controversies between two or more states;——between a state and citizens of another state;——between citizens of different states;——between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

        In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

        The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.


        Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

        The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.

        Article IV

        Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.


        Section 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

        A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

        No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.


        Section 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.

        The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

        Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.


        Article V


        The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.


        Article VI


        All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

        This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

        The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.


        Article VII


        The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

        Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present the seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth.

        In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,


        G. Washington-Presidt. and deputy from Virginia

        New Hampshire: John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

        Massachusetts: Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

        Connecticut: Wm: Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman

        New York: Alexander Hamilton

        New Jersey: Wil: Livingston, David Brearly, Wm. Paterson, Jona: Dayton

        Pennsylvania: B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt. Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

        Delaware: Geo: Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco: Broom

        Maryland: James McHenry, Dan of St Thos. Jenifer, Danl Carroll

        Virginia: John Blair——, James Madison Jr.

        North Carolina: Wm. Blount, Richd. Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

        South Carolina: J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

        Georgia: William Few, Abr Baldwin



        第 一 條

        第一款 本憲法授予的全部立法權,屬于由參議院和眾議院組成的合眾國國會。

        第二款 眾議院由各州人民每兩年選舉產生的眾議員組成。每個州的選舉人須具備該州州議會人數最多一院選舉人所必需的資格。





        第三款 合眾國參議院由[每州州議會選舉的]②兩名參議員組成,任期六年;每名參議員有一票表決權。







        第四款 舉行參議員和眾議員選舉的時間、地點和方式,在每個州由該州議會規定。但除選舉參議員的地點外,國會得隨時以法律制定或改變這類規定。


        第五款 每院是本院議員的選舉、選舉結果報告和資格的裁判者。每院議員過半數,即構成議事的法定人數;但不足法定人數時,得逐日休會,并有權按每院規定的方式和罰則,強迫缺席議員出席會議。




        第六款 參議員和眾議員應得到服務的報酬,此項報酬由法律確定并由合眾國國庫支付。他們除犯叛國罪、重罪和妨害治安罪外,在一切情況下都享有在出席各自議院會議期間和往返于各自議院途中不受逮捕的特權。他們不得因在各自議院發表的演說或辯論而在任何其他地方受到質問。


        第七款 所有征稅議案應首先在眾議院提出,但參議院得像對其他議案一樣,提出或同意修正案。



        第八款 國會有權:


















        第九款 現有任何一州認為得準予入境之人的遷移或入境,在一千八百零八年以前,國會不得加以禁止,但對此種人的入境,每人可征不超過十美元的稅。不得中止人身保護狀的特權,除非發生叛亂或入侵時公共安全要求中止這項特權。







        第十款 任何一州都不得:締結任何條約,參加任何同盟或邦聯;頒發捕獲敵船許可狀;鑄造貨幣;發行紙幣;使用金銀幣以外的任何物品作為償還債務的貨幣;通過任何公民權利剝奪法案、追溯既往的法律或損害契約義務的法律;或授予任何貴族爵位。



        第 二 條

        第一款 行政權屬于美利堅合眾國總統??偨y任期四年,副總統的任期相同??偨y和副總統按以下方法選舉;每個州依照該州議會所定方式選派選舉人若干人,其數目同該州在國會應有的參議員和眾議員總人數相等。但參議員或眾議員,或在合眾國屬下擔任有責任或有薪金職務的人,不得被選派為選舉人。







        策二款 總統是合眾國陸軍、海軍和征調為合眾國服役的各州民兵的總司令。他得要求每個行政部門長官就他們各自職責有關的任何事項提出書面意見。他有權對危害合眾國的犯罪行為發布緩刑令和赦免令,但彈劾案除外。



        第三款 總統應不時向國會報告聯邦情況,并向國會提出他認為必要和妥善的措施供國會審議。在非常情況下,他得召集兩院或任何一院開會。如遇兩院對休會時間有意見分歧時,他可使兩院休會到他認為適當的時間。他應接見大使和公使。他應負責使法律切實執行,并委任合眾國的所有官員。

        第四款 總統、副總統和合眾國的所有文職官員,因叛國、賄賂或其他重罪和輕罪而受彈劾并被定罪時,應予免職。

        第 三 條

        第一款 合眾國的司法權,屬于最高法院和國會不時規定和設立的下級法院。最高法院和下級法院的法官如行為端正,得繼續任職,并應在規定的時間得到服務報酬,此項報酬在他們繼續任職期間不得減少。

        第二款 司法權的適用范圍包括:由于本憲法、合眾國法律和根據合眾國權力已締結或將締結的條約而產生的一切普通法的和衡平法的案件;涉及大使、公使和領事的一切案件;關于海事法和海事管轄權的一切案件;合眾國為一方當事人的訴訟;兩個或兩個以上州之間的訴訟;[一州和他州公民之間的訴訟;]⑧不同州公民之間的訴訟;同州公民之間對不同州讓與土地的所有權的訴訟;一州或其公民同外國或外國公民或國民之間的訴訟。



        第三款 對合眾國的叛國罪只限于同合眾國作戰,或依附其敵人,給予其敵人以幫助和鼓勵。無論何人,除根據兩個證人對同一明顯行為的作證或本人在公開法庭上的供認,不得被定為叛國罪。


        第 四 條

        第一款 每個州對于他州的公共法律、案卷和司法程序,應給予充分信任和尊重。國會得以一般法律規定這類法律、案卷和司法程序如何證明和具有的效力。

        第二款 每個州的公民享有各州公民的一切特權和豁免權。



        第三款 新州得由國會接納加入本聯邦;但不得在任何其他州的管轄范圍內組成或建立新州;未經有關州議會和國會的同意,也不得合并兩個或兩個以上的州或幾個州的一部分組成新州。


        第四款 合眾國保證本聯邦各州實行共和政體,保護每州免遭入侵,并應州議會或州行政長官(在州議會不能召開時)的請求平定內亂。

        第 五 條


        第 六 條




        第 七 條




        約翰?蘭登 尼古拉斯?吉爾曼


        納撒尼爾?戈勒姆 魯弗斯?金


        威廉?塞繆爾?約翰遜 羅杰?謝爾曼




        威廉?利文斯頓 威廉?帕特森

        戴維?布里爾利 喬納森?戴頓


        本杰明?富蘭克林 托馬斯?菲茨西蒙斯

        托馬斯?米夫林 賈雷德?英格索爾

        羅伯特?莫里斯 詹姆斯?威爾遜

        喬治?克萊默 古?莫里斯


        喬治?里德 理查德?巴西特


        雅各布?布魯姆 約翰?迪金森


        詹姆斯?麥克亨利 丹尼爾?卡羅爾



        約翰?布萊爾 小詹姆斯?麥迪遜


        威廉?布朗特 休?威廉森



        約翰?拉特利奇 查爾斯?平克尼

        查爾斯?科茨沃斯?平克尼 皮爾斯?巴特勒


        威廉?費尤 亞伯拉罕?鮑德溫
































        第一款 在合眾國境內受合眾國管轄的任何地方,奴隸制和強制勞役都不得存在,但作為對于依法判罪的人的犯罪的懲罰除

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。



        第一款 所有在合眾國出生或歸化合眾國并受其管轄的人,都是合眾國的和他們居住州的公民。任何一州,都不得制定或實施限制合眾國公民的特權或豁免權的任何法律;不經正當法律程序,不得剝奪任何人的生命、自由或財產;在州管轄范圍內,也不得拒絕給予任何人以平等法律保護。

        第二款 眾議員名額,應按各州人口比例進行分配,此人口數包括一州的全部人口數,但不包括未被征稅的印第安人。但在選舉合眾國總統和副總統選舉人、國會眾議員、州行政和司法官員或州議會議員的任何選舉中,一州的[年滿二十一歲]⑩并且是合眾國公民的任何男性居民,除因參加叛亂或其他犯罪外,如其選舉權道到拒絕或受到任何方式的限制,則該州代表權的基礎,應按以上男性公民的人數同該州年滿二十一歲男性公民總人數的比例予以削減。

        第三款 無論何人,凡先前曾以國會議員、或合眾國官員、或任何州議會議員、或任何州行政或司法官員的身份宣誓維護合眾國憲法,以后又對合眾國作亂或反叛,或給予合眾國敵人幫助或鼓勵,都不得擔任國會參議員或眾議員、或總統和副總統選舉人,或擔任合眾國或任何州屬下的任何文職或軍職官員。但國會得以兩院各三分之二的票數取消此種限制。

        第四款 對于法律批準的合眾國公共債務,包括因支付平定作亂或反叛有功人員的年金和獎金而產生的債務,其效力不得有所懷疑。但無論合眾國或任何一州,都不得承擔或償付因援助對合眾國的作亂或反叛而產生的任何債務或義務,或因喪失或解放任何奴隸而提出的任何賠償要求;所有這類債務、義務和要求,都應被認為是非法和無效的。

        第五款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條規定。



        第一款 合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因種族、膚色或以前是奴隸而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。











        [第一款 本條批準一年后,禁止在合眾國及其管轄下的一切領土內釀造、出售和運送作為飲料的致醉酒類;禁止此類酒類輸入或輸出合眾國及其管轄下的一切領土。

        第二款 國會和各州都有權以適當立法實施本條。








        第一款 總統和副總統的任期應在本條未獲批準前原定任期屆滿之年的一月二十日正午結束,參議員和眾議員的任期在本條未獲批準前原定任期屆滿之年的一月三日正午結束,他們繼任人的任期在同時開始。



        總統。如在規定總統任期開始的時間以前,總統尚未選出,或當選總統不合乎資格,則當選副總統應代理總統直到 一名總統已合乎資格時為止。在當選總統和當選副總統都不合乎資格時,國會得以法律規定代理總統之人,或宣布選出代理總統的辦法。此人應代理總統直到一名總統或副總統合乎資格時為止。


        第五款 第一款和第二款應在本條批準以后的十月十五日生效。

        第六款 本條除非在其提交各州之日起七年以內,自四分之三州議會批準為憲法修正案,不得發生效力。



        第一款 美利堅合眾國憲法修正案第十八條現予廢除。









        第一款 合眾國政府所在的特區,應依國會規定方式選派:一定數目的總統和副總統選舉人,其人數如同特區是一個州一樣,等于它在國會有權擁有的參議員和眾議員人數的總和,但不得超過人口最少之州的選舉人人數。他們是在各州所選派的舉人以外增添的人,但為了選舉總統和副總統的目的,應被視為一個州選派的選舉人;他們在特區集會,履行第十二條修正案所規定的職責。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。



        第一款 合眾國公民在總統或副總統、總統或副總統選舉人、或國會參議員或眾議員的任何預選或其他選舉中的選舉權,不得因未交納任何人頭稅或其他稅而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。



        第一款 如遇總統被免職、死亡或辭職,副總統應成為總統。

        第二款 凡當副總統職位出缺時,總統應提名一名副總統,經國會兩院都以過半數票批準后就職。

        第三款 凡當總統向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱他不能夠履行其職務的權力和責任,直至他向他們提交一份相反的聲明為止,其權力和責任應由副總統作為代理總統履行。

        第四款 凡當副總統和行政各部長官的多數或國會以法律設立的其他機構成員的多數,向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任時,副總統應立即作為代理總統承擔總統職務的權力和責任。

        此后,當總統向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱喪失能力的情況不存在時,他應恢復總統職務的權力和責任, 除非副總統和行政各部長官的多數或國會以法律設立的其它機構成員的多數在四天之內向參議院臨時議長和眾議院議長提交書面聲明,聲稱總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任。在此種情況下,國會應決定這一問題,如在休會期間,應為此目的在四十八小時以內集會。如國會在收到后一書面聲明后的二十一天以內,或如適逢休會期間,則在國會按照要求集會以后的二十一天以內,以兩院的三分之二的票數決定總統不能夠履行總統職務的權力和責任,副總統應繼續作為代理總統履行總統職務的權力和責任;否則總統應恢復總統職務的權力和責任。



        第一款 年滿十八歲和十八歲以上的合眾國公民的選舉權,不得因為年齡而被合眾國或任何一州加以拒絕或限制。

        第二款 國會有權以適當立法實施本條。




        編輯:青島希尼爾翻譯公司翻譯部 2014-11-17

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